The second buffer zone in northern Syria was formed as a buffer zone in northern Syria, after the Russian and Turkish presidents signed a Memorandum of Understanding on 22 October 2019 in the Russian city of Sochi to end the ongoing conflict in the region.  Last week, the two sides met in Ankara to develop an agreement to create a safe zone along the Turkey-Syria border. The region is controlled by Turkey. To facilitate the process, the United States and Turkey will establish a joint operations center in the region. According to Turkish Defense Minister Hulusi Akar, the command post will be operational in the coming days. The Kurdish media network Rudaw said Turkey had no urgent “security problem” for a buffer zone and stressed that Turkey had managed to prevent any border crossing during the siege of Kobana without the need for a buffer zone.  “The demilitarized zone is monitored by mobile patrols of Turkish units and units of the Russian military police.” Russia and Turkey have agreed to create a demilitarized buffer zone in Syria`s Idlib province to separate government forces from rebel fighters stationed there. Israel`s Jerusalem Post newspaper called the establishment of the buffer zone because of Turkish threats a “rewrite of international law,” which implicitly recognizes a “right of invasion” and would have a major impact on other world conflicts by allowing powerful military nations to assert themselves unilaterally in the face of the weakest.  The agreement announced on Wednesday was apparently aimed only at ensuring that Turkish and American forces, NATO allies, did not come into conflict. After months of tension and threats, the first agreement was reached in mid-August 2019 to create the northern buffer zone of Syria between the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) and the United States, on the one hand, and Turkey on the other. The agreement aimed to limit the Turkish offensive on northern Syria through a process of gradual withdrawal of the SDF, withdrawal of fortifications and joint US-Turkish patrols, while the area could remain under civilian control of the autonomous administration of northern and eastern Syria and military control of the military councils of the Syrian Democratic Forces , in accordance with the first buffer zone agreement.